What Are The Causes Of Acne ?


Acne develops as a result of blockages in follicles. Hyperkeratinization and formation of a plug of keratin and sebum (a microcomedo) is the earliest change. Enlargement of sebaceous glands and an increase in sebum production occur with increased androgen (DHEA-S) production at adrenarche. The microcomedo may enlarge to form an open comedo (blackhead) or closed comedo (whitehead).

Whiteheads are the direct result of skin pores becoming clogged with sebum, a naturally occurring oil, and dead skin cells. In these conditions the naturally occurring largely commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes can cause inflammation, leading to inflammatory lesions (papules, infected pustules, or nodules) in the dermis around the microcomedo or comedo, which results in redness and may result in scarring or hyperpigmentation.
Primary causes

* Family/Genetic history. The tendency to develop acne runs in families. For example, school-age boys with acne often have other members in their family with acne as well. A family history of acne is associated with an earlier occurrence of acne and an increased number of retentional acne lesions.

* Hormonal activity, such as menstrual cycles and puberty. During puberty, an increase in male sex hormones called androgens cause the glands to get larger and make more sebum. [12]

* Inflammation, skin irritation or scratching of any sort will activate inflammation. Anti-inflammatories are known to improve acne[citation needed].

* Stress, through increased output of hormones from the adrenal (stress) glands, although modern tests have said otherwise and point to this not being a cause[citation needed].

* Hyperactive sebaceous glands, secondary to the three hormone sources above.

* Accumulation of dead skin cells[citation needed].

* Bacteria in the pores. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium that causes acne. In-vitro resistance of P. acnes to commonly used antibiotics has been increasing.

* Use of anabolic steroids[citation needed].

* Any medication containing lithium, barbiturates or androgens.[citation needed]

* Exposure to certain chemical compounds. Chloracne is particularly linked to toxic exposure to dioxins, namely Chlorinated dioxins[citation needed].

* Exposure to halogens. Halogen acne is linked to exposure to halogens (e.g. iodides, chlorides, bromides, fluorides)[citation needed].

* Chronic use of amphetamines.

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